Formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals in an HCCI engine - calculations and LIF-measurements
Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and formaldehyde were calculated using homogeneous (HRM) and stochastic reactor models (SRM), and the result was compared to LIF-measurements from an optically accessed iso-octane / n-heptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The comparison was at first conducted from averaged total concentrations / signal strengths over the entire combustion volume, which showed a good qualitative agreement between experiments and calculations. Time- and the calculation inlet temperature resolved concentrations of formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals obtained through HRM are presented. Probability density plots (PDPs) through SRM calculations and LIF-measurements are presented and compared, showing a very good agreement considering their delicate and sensitive nature. Thus it is concluded that SRM is a valid model for these purposes, justifying the use of SRM in order to extend the evaluated concentration ranges of the analyzed species beyond the detection / separation level. It is shown that formaldehyde concentration increases slowly, contrary to hydroxyl which is fast developed. Formaldehyde is locally fast consumed once high temperature chemistry has started, and the highest maximum concentrations of formaldehyde are found in cases where low-temperature chemistry was never transitioned to high-temperature ignition. The PDP’s from SRM calculations give increased insight of the occurrence and development of auto-ignition. During the onset of ignition, the regions with the highest formaldehyde concentrations also have the highest concentrations of hydroxyl radicals. The low temperature heat release (LTHR) maximum occurs before maximum of formaldehyde, and the regions of (for the LTHR regime relatively) high hydroxyl concentrations gradually becomes fewer until they cease to exist; this occurs after the LTHR peak but before formaldehyde maximum. During the transition state all regions have similar formaldehyde concentrations but varying concentrations of hydroxyl.
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Keywords: homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), ignition, stochastic reactor model (SRM),
Associated Project: Engines