Modelling soot formation in a DISI engine
In this work, the formation of soot in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine is simulated using the Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) engine code. Volume change, convective heat transfer, turbulent mixing, direct injection and flame propagation are accounted for. In order to simulate flame propagation, the cylinder is divided into an unburned, entrained and burned zone, with the rate of entrainment being governed by empirical equations but combustion modeled with chemical kinetics. The model contains a detailed chemical mechanism as well as a highly detailed soot formation model, however computation times are relatively short. The soot model provides information on the morphology and chemical composition of soot aggregates along with bulk quantities, including soot mass, number density, volume fraction and surface area. The model is first calibrated by simulating experimental data from a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Spark Ignition (SI) engine. The model is then used to simulate experimental data from the literature, where the numbers, sizes and derived mass particulate emissions from a 1.83 L, 4-cylinder, 4 valve production DISI engine were examined. Experimental results from different injection and spark timings are compared with the model and the qualitative trends in aggregate size distribution and emissions match the exhaust gas measurements well.
Associated Project: Engines